Table of Contents
md5deep - Compute and compare MD5 message digests
sha1deep - Compute and compare SHA-1 message digests
sha256deep - Compute and compare SHA-256 message digests
tigerdeep - Compute and compare Tiger message digests
whirlpooldeep - Compute and compare Whirlpool message digests
-v | -V | -h
md5deep [-m|-M|-x|-X <file>] [-a|-A <hash>] [-f <file>] [-p <size>] [-i <size>] [-tnwzresS0lbkqZud]
[-F <bum>] [-o <fbcplsde>] [-j <num>] [[FILES]
Computes the hashes,
or message digest, for any number of files while optionally recursively
digging through the directory structure. Can also take a list of known hashes
and display the filenames of input files whose hashes either do or do not
match any of the known hashes. Errors are reported to standard error. If
no FILES are specified, reads from standard input.
As of version
3.0 the program supports Unicode characters in filenames on Microsoft Windows
systems for filenames specified on the command line with globbing (e.g. *),
for files specified with the -f of files to hash, and for files read from
directories using the -r option.
- -p <size>
- Piecewise mode.
Breaks files into chunks before hashing. Chunks may be specified using
IEC multipliers b, k, m, g, t, p, or e. (Never let it be said that the author
didn’t plan ahead!) This mode cannot be used with the -z mode.
- -i|-I <size>
- Size threshold mode. Only hash files smaller than the given the threshold.
In -i mode, simply omits those files larger than the threshold. In -I mode,
displays all files, but uses asterisks for the hashes of files larger than
the threshold. Sizes may be specified using IEC multipliers b, k, m, g,
t, p, or e.
- Enables recursive mode. All subdirectories are traversed. Please
note that recursive mode cannot be used to examine all files of a given
file extension. For example, calling md5deep -r *.txt will examine all files
in directories that end in .txt.
- Displays a progress indicator and estimate
of time remaining for each file being processed. Time estimates for files
larger than 4GB are not available on Windows. This mode may not be used
with th -p mode.
- -m <file>
- Enables matching mode. The file given should be a
list of known hashes. The input files are examined one at a time, and only
those files that match the list of known hashes are output. This flag may
be used more than once to add multiple sets of known hashes. Acceptable
formats for lists of known hashes are plain (such as those generated by
md5deep or md5sum), Hashkeeper files, iLook, and the National Software
Reference Library (NSRL) as produced by the National Institute for Standards
If standard input is used with the -m flag, displays "stdin" if the input
matches one of the hashes in the list of known hashes. If the hash does
not match, the program displays no output.
This flag may not be used in conjunction with the -x, -X, or -A flags. See
the section "UNICODE SUPPORT" below.
- -x <file>
- Same as the -m flag above, but
does negative matching. That is, only those files NOT in the list of known
hashes are displayed.
This flag may not be used in conjunction with the -m, -M, or -a flags. See
the section "UNICODE SUPPORT" below.
- -M and -X <file>
- Same as -m and -x above,
but displays the hash for each file that does (or does not) match the
list of known hashes.
- -a <hash>
- Adds a single hash to the list of known hashes
used for matching mode, and if not already enabled, enables matching mode.
Adding single hashes cannot, by itself, be used to print the hashes of
matching files like the -M flag does. When used in conjunction with the -w
flag, the filename displayed is just the hash submitted on the command
This flag may not be used in conjunction with the -x, -X, or -A flags.
- Same as -a above, but does negative matching. This flag may not be used
in conjunction with the -m, -M, or -A flags.
- -f <file>
- Takes a list of files
to be hashed from the specified file. Each line is assumed to be a filename.
This flag can only be used once per invocation. If it’s used a second time,
the second instance will clobber the first.
Note that you can still use other flags, such as the -m or -x modes, and
submit additional FILES on the command line.
- During any of the matching
modes (-m,-M,-x,or -X), displays the filename of the known hash that matched
the input file. See the section "UNICODE SUPPORT" below.
- Display a timestamp
in GMT with each result. On Windows this timestamp will be the file’s creation
time. On all other systems it should be the file’s change time.
any of the matching modes (-m,-M,-x,or -X), displays only the filenames of
any known hashes that were not matched by any of the input files.
silent mode. All error messages are supressed.
- Like silent mode, but still
displays warnings on improperly formatted hashes in the list of known hashes.
- Enables file size mode. Prepends the hash with a ten digit representation
of the size of each file processed. If the file size is greater than 9999999999
bytes (about 9.3GB) the program displays 9999999999 for the size.
mode. File names are omitted from the output. Each hash is still followed
by two spaces before the newline.
- Produces output in Triage format. Each
line contans the file’s size, a tab, a hash of the first 512 bytes, a tab,
the hash of the complete file, a tab, and the file name. These values are
intended in increasing order of specificity. That is, two files with different
sizes cannot possibly match. This is a fast comparison and should be done
first. Next, two files with different partial hashes cannot possibly match.
This is often faster than hashing the whole file. Finally, if those two
pieces align, then it’s worth reading and hashing the entire file.
a NULL character (/0) to terminate each line instead of a newline. Useful
for processing filenames with strange characters.
- Enables relative file
paths. Instead of printing the absolute path for each file, displays the
relative file path as indicated on the command line. This flag may not
be used in conjunction with the -b flag.
- Enables bare mode. Strips any
leading directory information from displayed filenames. This flag may not
be used in conjunction with the -l flag.
- Enables asterisk mode. An asterisk
is inserted in lieu of a second space between the filename and the hash,
just like md5sum in its binary (-b) mode.
- Enables comma separated values
output, or CSV mode. This mode has the side effect of removing the 10 digit
size limitation from -z mode. Also note that asterisks from -k mode are not
displayed when in CSV mode.
- -o <bcpflsd>
- Enables expert mode. Allows the user
specify which (and only which) types of files are processed. Directory processing
is still controlled with the -r flag. The expert mode options allowed are:
f - Regular files
b - Block Devices
c - Character Devices
p - Named Pipes
l - Symbolic Links
s - Sockets
d - Solaris Doors
e - Windows PE executables
- Controls multi-threading. By default the program
will create one producer thread to scan the file system and one hashing
thread per CPU core. Multi-threading causes output filenames to be in non-deterministic
order, as files that take longer to hash will be delayed while they are
hashed. If a deterministic order is required, specify -j0 to disable multi-threading
- Output in Digital Forensics XML (DFXML) format.
- Quote Unicode output.
For example, the snowman is shown as U+C426.
- Specifies the input mode
that is used to read files. The default is -Fb (buffered I/O) which reads
files with fopen(). Specifying -Fu will use unbuffered I/O and read the file
with open(). Specifying -Fm will use memory-mapped I/O which will be faster
on some platforms, but which (currently) will not work with files that
produce I/O errors.
- Show a help screen and exit.
- Show the version number
- Show copyright information and exit.
By default all program input and output
should be in UTF-8. The program automatically converts this to UTF-16 for
On Unix/Linux/MacOS, you should use a terminal emulator
that supports UTF-8 and UTF-8 characters in filenames will be properly displayed.
On Windows, please note that the onsole is not capiable of displaying
Unicode characters. You must either redirect output to a file and open the
file with Wordpad (which can display Unicode), or you must specify the
-u option to quote Unicode using standard U+XXXX notation.
file name of a file containing known hashes may not be specified as a unicode
filename, but you can specify the name using tab completition or an asterisk
(e.g. md5deep -m *.txt where there is only one file with a .txt extension).
Returns a bit-wise value based on the success of the operation
and the status of any matching operations.
md5deep was written by Jesse Kornblum, firstname.lastname@example.org
and Simson Garfinkel.
- Success. Note that the program
considers itself successful even when it encounters read errors, permission
denied errors, or finds directories when not in recursive mode.
- Unused hashes.
Under any of the matching modes, returns this value if one or more of
the known hashes was not matched by any of the input files.
- Unmatched inputs.
Under any of the matching modes, returns this value if one or more of the
input values did not match any of the known hashes.
- User error, such as
trying to do both positive and negative matching at the same time.
error, such as memory corruption or uncaught cycle. All internal errors
should be reported to the developer! See the section "Reporting Bugs" below.
Using the -r flag cannot be used to recursively
process all files of a given extension in a directory. This is a feature,
not a bug. If you need to do this, use the find(1)
take all bug reports very seriously. Any bug that jeopardizes the forensic
integrity of this program could have serious consequences on people’s lives.
When submitting a bug report, please include a description of the problem,
how you found it, and your contact information.
Send bug reports to the
author at the address above.
This program is a work of the US
Government. In accordance with 17 USC 105, copyright protection is not available
for any work of the US Government. This program is PUBLIC DOMAIN. Portions
of this program contain code that is licensed under the terms of the General
Public License (GPL). Those portions retain their original copyright and
license. See the file COPYING for more details.
There is NO warranty for
this program; not even for MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
More information and installation instructions can be
found in the README file. Current versions of both documents can be found
on the project homepage: http://md5deep.sourceforge.net/
The MD5 specification,
RFC 1321, is available at
The SHA-1 specification, RFC 3174, is available
The SHA-256 specification, FIPS 180-2,
is available at
The Tiger specification
is available at
The Whirlpool specification
is available at
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